Logo AlgoGT

Workshop on Algorithmic Game Theory:
Learning Algorithms and Dynamics in Distributed Systems

July, 2nd-3rd 2013,
Saint Nizier du Moucherotte, France

Workshop Chair:
Corinne Touati (LIG and Inria)

Program Chairs:
Johanne Cohen (CNRS-PRISM)
Panayotis Mertikopoulos (CNRS-LIG / Inria)

Local organizers:
Marie-Anne Dauphin-Rizzi (Inria)
Corinne Touati (LIG and Inria)

Manon Dalban-Pilon (Inria)

GDR Jeux
Workshop program
     Pdf version available here

Day 1: Tuesday, July 2nd

  • 10:45 - 11:00 : Opening
  • 11:00 - 12:30 : Session « Reinforcement Learning in Networks wireless1 »
    Session Chair: Panayotis Mertikopoulos (CNRS)
    • Stéphane Sénécal (Orange Labs), The association problem in wireless networks: a Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning approach See abstract
    • Marceau Coupechoux (Telecom ParisTech), Self-Imitation in Cognitive Radio Networks See abstract
    • Yezekael Hayel (University of Avignon), Learning algorithms in queueing games See abstract
  • 12:30 - 14:00 : Lunch break
  • 14:00 - 15:30 : Session « Dynamical Systems for Learning and Decision-Making »
    Session Chair: Bruno Gaujal (Inria)
    • Rida Laraki (CNRS - École Polytechnique), Higher order game dynamics See abstract
    • Yannick Viossat (Université Paris-Dauphine), Links between learning processes in games: no-regret dynamics and fictitious play See abstract
    • Ana Busic (Inria), Density classification on infinite lattices and trees See abstract
  • 15:30 - 15:50 : Coffee break
  • 15:50 - 17:20 : Session « Information Filtering and Exploitation »
    Session Chair: Marceau Coupechoux (Telecom ParisTech)
    • Nidhi Hegde (Technicolor), Content curation games in social networks See abstract
    • Samson Lasaulce (CNRS), Distributed optimization under imperfect monitoring See abstract
    • Patrick Loiseau (EURECOM), Classification games See abstract
  • 17:20 - 19:45 : Discussions and a surprising social event
  • 20:00 - 23:00 : Drinks and dinner

Day 2: Wednesday, July 3rd

  • 09:00 - 10:30 : Session « Dynamics and Algorithms for Pricing Problems »
    Session Chair: Johanne Cohen (PRiSM - CNRS)
    • Veronica Belmega (ETIS / ENSEA - UCP - CNRS), Hierarchical games and dynamics in HetNets pricing problems See abstract
    • Onno Zoeter (Xerox Research Centre Europe), Demand based pricing for parking. Theory and results from a first-of-its kind large scale experiment See abstract
    • Fabio Martignon (Paris-Sud University, LRI), Joint Pricing and Network Selection Game in Cognitive Radio Networks See abstract
  • 10:30 - 10:50 : Coffee break
  • 10:50 - 12:20 : Poster Session
    • Marcella Tambuscio (Università di Pisa - BCAM), Worst-case (in)efficiency of a congested duopoly on equilibria and Edgeworth cycles See abstract
    • Raouia Masmoudi (ETIS/ ENSEA, University of Cergy-Pontoise), Modified Iterative Water-filling Algorithm for the Power Minimization Problem under QoS and Cognitive Radio Interference Constraints See abstract
    • Lise Rodier (PRiSM), SLA learning from past failures, a Multi-Armed Bandit approach See abstract
    • Mattia Minelli (ENST), Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Optimal Relay Placement in Cellular Networks See abstract
    • François Mériaux (Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes), Achievability of efficient satisfaction equilibria in self-configuring networks See abstract
    • Nicolas David (LIA), Simulations of learning methods for noncooperative queueing systems See abstract
    • Alexandre Reiffers-Masson (Inria/LIA), Pricing Agreement between Service and Content Provider: A Net Neutrality Issue See abstract
    • Ilaria Brunetti (Inria Sophia Antipolis), A Markov Decision Evolutionary Game for the study of a Dynamic Hawk and Dove Problem See abstract
    • Cengis Hasan (Inria), Matching Games in Networking Problems See abstract
    • Josu Doncel (LAAS-CNRS), On the Efficiency of Non-Cooperative Load Balancing See abstract
    • Victor Ramiro (ISAE / University of Toulouse), On the limits of DTN monitoring See abstract
  • 12:20 - 14:00 : Lunch break
  • 14:00 - 15:30 : Session « Congestion and Resource Allocation »
    Session Chair: Fabio Martignon (Paris-Sud University, LRI)
    • Cheng Wan (UPMC - Paris 6, IMJ), Coalitions and delegation in congestion games See abstract
    • Giacomo Bacci (University of Pisa and Princeton University), An Energy-Efficient Perspective on Contention-Based Synchronization for 3G and 4G Communications See abstract
    • Francesco De Pellegrini (CREATE-NET), Incentive Mechanisms based on Minority Games in Delay Tolerant Networks See abstract
  • 15:30 - 15:45 : Closing

Abstract of Talks
Giacomo Bacci (University of Pisa and Princeton University)
An Energy-Efficient Perspective on Contention-Based Synchronization for 3G and 4G Communications

Since the early days of wireless communications, radio resource management has emerged as a key issue in network design. In the era of wireless computing, the need for an efficient allocation of the resources (namely, power, bandwidth, and computational complexity) has become more and more challenging. A smart management of the available resources should include not only the data detection phase, that has received a remarkable interest in the last decade, but also the initial phase of network association, during which the terminals exchange some information with the base station of infrastructured networks, and eventually get access to the system. In the first part of this talk, we will focus on CDMA-based communications, adopting the analytical tools of game theory to derive an iterative and distributed algorithm to trade off satisfactory QoS and prolonging battery life of uplink users. We will then extend this approach to contention-based synchronization for 4G communications, encompassing both OFDMA and SC-FDMA technologies. In this context, we formulate a game-theoretic framework to identify optimization criteria for the system design and to derive a low-complexity and scalable resource allocation procedure based on estimated parameters.

Veronica Belmega (ETIS / ENSEA - UCP - CNRS)
Hierarchical games and dynamics in HetNets pricing problems

The strategic deployment of small and femto-cells, overlaid on existing wireless communication infrastructure is envisaged as a key technology enabling network providers to offer a wide variety of services to their customers. Several challenges arise due to the selfish behavior of the customers wishing to optimize their chosen service's quality-price tradeoff. Hence, the behavior and choices of the customers must be anticipated by the providers in order to select the most profitable pricing policy.

A game-theoretic model of the complex interactions between customers and providers, i.e., the Stackelberg formulation in which the service providers act as leaders and the customers as followers, will be investigated. (Joint work with Luca Rose, Walid Saad and Merouane Debbah.)

Ilaria Brunetti (Inria Sophia Antipolis)
A Markov Decision Evolutionary Game for the study of a Dynamic Hawk and Dove Problem

We study one of the most well known examples of evolutionary games, the Hawk and Dove problem, in the dynamic framework of Markov Decision Evolutionary Games. We associate with each player an extra individual state depending on the age and on the strength of the individual. This state may change as a function of the actions taken by those it encounters. We further extend the Hawk and Dove game by introducing Group Markov Decision Evolutionary Game Theory (GMDEG), in which a player does not necessarily represent a single interacting individual but a whole class of such individuals. The fitness to be maximized is the one of the group: this approach shows novel results on the structure of the equilibria and the non uniqueness of the equilibria.

Ana Busic (Inria)
Density classification on infinite lattices and trees

Consider an infinite graph with nodes initially labeled by independent Bernoulli random variables of parameter p. We address the density classification problem, that is, we want to design a deterministic or probabilistic dynamical system with a local and homogeneous updating rule that evolves on this graph and decides whether p is smaller or larger than 1/2. Precisely, the trajectories should converge to the uniform configuration with only 0's if p<1/2, and only 1's if p>1/2. Two natural instantiations of dynamical systems are considered, one with synchronous updates of node labels (probabilistic cellular automaton), and one with asynchronous updates (finite range interacting particle system). The difficulty is twofold: first, it is impossible to centralize the information (nodes are indistinguishable); second, it is impossible to use classical counting techniques (labels contain only binary information). We present solutions to the problem on the regular grids of dimension d, for any d>1, and on the regular infinite trees. For the bi-infinite line, we propose some candidates that we back up with numerical simulations. (Joint work with N. Fatès, J. Mairesse, and I. Marcovici.)

Marceau Coupechoux (Telecom ParisTech)
Self-Imitation in Cognitive Radio Networks

In this talk, we tackle the problem of resource allocation in cognitive radio networks and we propose a distributed learning mechanism based on self-imitation. The proposed scheme is fully distributed and does not require any information exchange between cognitive radios. The convergence analysis is based on the study of the stochastically stables states of a perturbed Markov chain. (Joint work with Stefano Iellamo and Lin Chen.)

Nicolas David (LIA)
Simulations of learning methods for noncooperative queueing systems
Francesco De Pellegrini (CREATE-NET)
Incentive Mechanisms based on Minority Games in Delay Tolerant Networks

In this talk we describe an incentive mechanism for heterogeneous Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs).

The proposed mechanism tackles a core problem of such systems: how to induce coordination of DTN relays in order to achieve a target performance figure, e.g., delivery probability or end-to-end delay, under a given constraint in term of network resources, e.g., number of active nodes or energy consumption. Also, we account for the realistic case when the cost for taking part in the forwarding process varies with the devices' technology or the users' habits. Finally, the scheme is truly applicable to DTNs since it works with no need for end-to-end connectivity and it does not requires stringent assumptions on the mobility pattern.

In this context, one can introduce a basic coordination mechanism leveraging the notion of a Minority Game. In this game, relays compete to be in the population minority and their utility is defined in combination with a rewarding mechanism. The rewards in turn configure as a control by which the network operator controls the desired operating point for the DTN. To this aim, the equilibria of the game in the case of heterogeneous DTNs can be determined. Finally, a learning algorithm based on stochastic approximations provably drives the system to the equilibrium without requiring perfect state information at relay nodes or at the source node and without using end-to-end communications to implement the rewarding scheme.
Josu Doncel (LAAS-CNRS)
On the Efficiency of Non-Cooperative Load Balancing

Price of Anarchy is an oft-used worst-case measure of the inefficiency of non-cooperative decentralized architectures. In practice, though, the worst-case scenario may occur rarely, if at all. For non-cooperative decentralized load-balancing in server farms, we show that the Price of Anarchy is an overly pessimistic measure that does not reflect the performance obtained in most instances of the problem. In the case of two classes of servers, we show that non-cooperative load-balancing provides a closeto-optimal solution in most cases, and that the worst-case performance given by the Price of Anarchy occurs only in a very specific setting, namely, when the slower servers are infinitely more numerous and infinitely slower than the faster ones. We explicitly characterize the worst-case traffic conditions for the efficiency of non-cooperative load-balancing schemes, and show that, contrary to a common belief, the worst inefficiency is in general not achieved in heavy-traffic or close to saturation conditions.

Cengis Hasan (Inria)
Matching Games in Networking Problems
Yezekael Hayel (University of Avignon)
Learning algorithms in queueing games

Learning algorithms based on reinforcements have proved to be very efficient to propose decentralized protocols for optimization problems in which several decision makers interact and are in competition. Those mechanisms have many properties like convergence and speed if the non-cooperative game has some structural patterns. Interestingly, those algorithms are not used in games where the decision makers are competing into a queueing system. This talk will present some results using that kind of decentralized protocols where several decision makers interact through a queueing system. An application related to last-mile optimization problem in transportation networks will be presented.

Nidhi Hegde (Technicolor)
Content curation games in social networks

Social networks offer users new means of accessing information, essentially relying on "social filtering", i.e. propagation and filtering of information by social contacts. The sheer amount of data flowing in these networks, combined with the limited budget of attention of each user, makes it difficult to ensure that social filtering brings relevant content to the interested users. I will present two perspectives on filtering, or curating, of relevant content under a limited budget of attention.

First, I will consider how users may self-organize their connections to receive content of interest to them. To this end I will introduce flow games, a simple abstraction that models network formation under selfish user dynamics, featuring user-specific interests and budget of attention. Second, I will consider curating of a user's personal stream when sourced from aggregators. Here I will use the framework of utility games to demonstrate the efficiency of incentive-based curation mechanisms.

Rida Laraki (CNRS - École Polytechnique)
Higher order game dynamics

Continuous-time game dynamics are typically first order systems where payoffs determine the growth rate of the players' strategy shares. In this talk, we investigate what happens beyond first order by viewing payoffs as higher order forces of change, specifying e.g. the acceleration of the players' evolution instead of its velocity (a viewpoint which emerges naturally when it comes to aggregating empirical data of past instances of play). To that end, we derive a wide class of higher order game dynamics, generalizing first order imitative dynamics, and, in particular, the replicator dynamics. We show that strictly dominated strategies become extinct in n-th order payoff-monotonic dynamics n orders as fast as in the corresponding first order dynamics; furthermore, in stark contrast to first order, weakly dominated strategies also become extinct. All in all, higher order payoff-monotonic dynamics lead to the elimination of weakly dominated strategies, followed by the iterated deletion of strictly dominated strategies, thus providing a dynamic justification of the well-known epistemic rationalizability process of Dekel and Fudenberg (1990). Finally, we also establish a higher order analogue of the folk theorem and we show that convergence to strict equilibria in n-th order dynamics is n orders as fast as in first order.

Samson Lasaulce (CNRS)
Distributed optimization under imperfect monitoring

The goal of this presentation is to present a result which has been derived by using information-theoretic tools and allows one to know to what extent two decision makers can coordinate when a given imperfect monitoring structure is available. Numerical results for the case of power allocation in wireless channels will be presented.

Patrick Loiseau (EURECOM)
Classification games

Classification games are games between a player (the defender) who performs a classification task and a player (the attacker) who controls part of the training dataset. Such games have many potential applications in areas where machine learning algorithms are used in a partially adversarial environment (e.g., spam filtering). As a simple example, consider a toy model where a defender classifies an attacker between two possible types: a dangerous spy or a benign spammer. Attackers hit one of two servers ("mail" and "file") at each discrete time instant and the classification is based on the number of file server hits observed in a fixed time window. The spammer naively hits both servers with a commonly known distribution (more concentrated on his main target, the mail server). The game is then between the spy and the defender. The defender chooses a classification threshold on the number of file server hits, to balance the cost of missed spy detection and the cost of false alarm. The spy chooses the number of hits on the file server (his main target) to balance the benefit of file server hits and the cost of being classified as spy (and therefore more heavily tracked!).

In this talk, we give results on the structure of Nash equilibria of classification games in mixed strategies for a family of different nonzero-sum payoff functions and we discuss on-going work.

(Joint work with Lemonia Dritsoula and John Musacchio (UC Santa Cruz))

Fabio Martignon (Paris-Sud University, LRI)
Joint Pricing and Network Selection Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

We address the joint pricing and network selection problem in cognitive radio networks, considering both the point of view of Primary/Secondary operators and network users. The problem is formulated as a Stackelberg game where first the Primary and Secondary operators set the network subscription price to maximize their revenue. Then, users perform the network selection process, deciding whether to pay more for a guaranteed service, or use a cheaper, best-effort secondary network, where congestion and low throughput may be experienced.

We derive optimal stable price and network selection settings, investigating the efficiency of the equilibria reached by operators and users through the determination of the Price of Anarchy. Furthermore, we study network users’ dynamics using a population game model, and determine its convergence properties under replicator dynamics.

Raouia Masmoudi (ETIS/ ENSEA, University of Cergy-Pontoise)
Modified Iterative Water-filling Algorithm for the Power Minimization Problem under QoS and Cognitive Radio Interference Constraints

In this work, we consider a Cognitive Radio (CR) channel composed of a secondary user (SU) and K ≥ 1 primary users (PUs). An analysis of the opportunistic power minimization problem over several orthogonal frequency bands at the SU level under the following feasibility constraints: a minimum Quality of Service (QoS) constraint at the SU, maximum peak and average interference levels allowed at the PUs is provided. The general solution, when it exists, is a water-filling type solution which can be computed via iterative algorithms. It turns out that we provided in the case of two orthogonal bands, a closed-form analytical solution. Moreover, we proposed an efficient iterative algorithm to compute the solution in the general case. This algorithm is basically a modified iterative water-filling algorithm. Its convergence to an optimal solution is investigated and numerical results that confirm our analysis are also illustrated.

François Mériaux (Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes)
Achievability of efficient satisfaction equilibria in self-configuring networks

In this work, a behavioral rule that allows radio devices to achieve an efficient satisfaction equilibrium (ESE) in fully decentralized self-configuring networks (DSCNs) is presented. The relevance of ESE in the context of DSCNs is that at such state, radio devices adopt a transmission/receive configuration such that they are able to simultaneously satisfy their individual quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. An ESE is also an efficient network configuration, i.e., individual QoS satisfaction is achieved by investing the lowest possible effort. Here, the notion of effort refers to a preference each radio device independently establishes among its own set of actions. In particular, the proposed behavioral rule requires less information than existing rules, as in the case of the classical best response dynamics and its variants. Sufficient conditions for convergence are presented in a general framework. Numerical results are provided in the context of a particular uplink power control scenario, and convergence from any initial action profile to an ESE is formally proved in this scenario. This property ensures the proposed rule to be robust to the dynamic arrival or departure of radio devices in the network.

(Joint work with S. M. Perlaza, S. Lasaulce, Z. Han and H. V. Poor.)

Mattia Minelli (ENST)
Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Optimal Relay Placement in Cellular Networks

In this poster, we address the problem of optimally placing relay nodes in a cellular network with the aim of maximizing cell capacity. In order to accurately model interference, we use a dynamic framework, in which users arrive at random time instants and locations, download a file and leave the system. A fixed point equation is solved to account for the interactions between stations. We also propose an extension of a fluid model to relay based cellular networks. This allows us to obtain quick approximations of the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) that are very close to 3GPP LTEA guideline results in terms of SINR distribution. We then use these formulas to develop a dedicated Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm, which adapts dynamically the temperature to energy variations and uses a combination of coarse and fine grids to accelerate the search for an optimized solution. Simulations results are provided for both in-band and out-of-band relays. They show how relays should be placed in a cell in order to increase the capacity in case of uniform and non-uniform traffic. The crucial impact of the backhaul link is analyzed for in-band relays. Insights are given on the influence of shadowing.

Victor Ramiro (ISAE / University of Toulouse)
On the limits of DTN monitoring

Compared to wired networks, Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN) are challenging to monitor due to their lack of infrastructure and the absence of end-to-end paths. This work studies the feasibility, limits and convergence of monitoring such DTNs. More specifically, we focus on the efficient monitoring of intercontact time distribution (ICT) between DTN participants. Our contribution is two-fold. First we propose two schemes to sample data using monitors deployed within the DTN. In particular, we sample and estimate the ICT distribution. Second, we evaluate this scheme over both simulated DTN networks and real DTN traces. Our initial results show that (i) there is a high correlation between the quality of sampling and the sampled mobility type, and (ii) the number and placement of monitors impact the estimation of the ICT distribution of the whole DTN.

Alexandre Reiffers-Masson (Inria/LIA)
Pricing Agreement between Service and Content Provider: A Net Neutrality Issue
Lise Rodier (PRiSM)
SLA learning from past failures, a Multi-Armed Bandit approach

A Service Level Agreements (SLA) is a contract between a customer and one of his neighboring Network Service Provider (NSP) defining services to one or more destinations (i.e. IP prefixes) at a given Quality of Service (QoS). The customer sends a QoS request to his NSPs which answer with an offer (i.e. an SLA proposal and a price) matching those QoS requirements. The customer chooses among these NSPs' offers and sets an SLA with the selected NSP. But, once committed, the SLA can be violated and the customer has no means to predict that. We focus on offer selection according to QoS and taking into account the violation of the constraints encountered in the past with an NSP. The objective of the customer is to learn the reliability of his NSPs in order to establish an SLA having a low probability of being violated. Whoever the customer is (an end-user, a provider, an NSP, an enterprise etc.), this objective still holds. For instance, the end-users' satisfaction strongly relates to destination availability; the interest of a provider is to ensure the reliability of the path he will propose in his own offers. We aim to analyze the customer behavior when choosing among the offers. We propose an algorithm for the selection of the best SLA offer corresponding to a trade-off among its price and the proposed QoS. This algorithm, using a minimizing-regret technique, provides an estimation of the reliability of his NSPs to the customer. Our approach only needs an end-to-end monitoring tool for used paths (and not a per-domain one) and depends on the customer's history (failure, success of previous SLAs).

(Joint work with David Auger, Johanne Cohen, Mohamed Lamine Lamali and Hélia Pouyllau.)

Stéphane Sénécal (Orange Labs)
The association problem in wireless networks: a Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning approach

The purpose of these works is to develop a self-optimized association algorithm based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning (PGRL), which is both scalable, stable and robust. The term robust means that performance degradation in the learning phase should be forbidden or limited to predefined thresholds. The algorithm is model-free (as opposed to Value Iteration) and robust (as opposed to Q-Learning). The association problem is modeled as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). The policy space is parameterized. The parameterized family of policies is then used as expert knowledge for the PGRL. The PGRL converges towards a local optimum and the average cost decreases monotonically during the learning process. The properties of the solution make it a good candidate for practical implementation. Furthermore, the robustness property allows to use the PGRL algorithm in an "always-on" learning mode. (Joint work with Richard Combes, Ilham El Bouloumi and Zwi Altman.)

Marcella Tambuscio (Università di Pisa - BCAM)
Worst-case (in)efficiency of a congested duopoly on equilibria and Edgeworth cycles

We study a non-atomic congestion game with parallel links, where each link is under the control of a provider that sets a per-access price to maximize its profit. When the link latency functions are ‘highly convex’, a (pure) Nash equilibrium does not exist. In these cases, Best-Response dynamic system is shown to converge to a cycle. In a typical cycle, prices decrease until when one provider has the incentive to set a larger price, after which the cycle starts again.

This qualitative behavior of the prices is similar to the one found in the Edgeworth’s competition model. In our main result, we show that the ‘efficiency’ of the game evaluated on prices belonging to a limit cycle can be arbitrarily small. This contrasts with the known fact that prices forming a Nash equilibrium, when they exist, yield an efficient utilization of resources.

Yannick Viossat (Université Paris-Dauphine)
Links between learning processes in games: no-regret dynamics and fictitious play

No-regret dynamics and fictitious play are key learning processes in games, and may be of interest for distributed optimization. Though apparently quite different, these processes are connected. Indeed, wide classes of no-regret dynamics are perturbed versions of continuous fictitious play. We will explore the intuition behind these and their applications of these findings.

Cheng Wan (UPMC - Paris 6, IMJ)
Coalitions and delegation in congestion games

In a network congestion game, a nonatomic player holds an infinitesimal flow while a splittable (resp. integer splittable) atomic player holds a flow which can be divided arbitrarily (resp. into several parts of integer weight) and sent by different paths.

The first part of the talk is about the impact of the coalitions in composite congestion games where nonatomic and atomic splittable players coexist. Two-terminal parallel-path network is considered. Once the existence and the uniqueness of composite equilibrium are established, several results on the connection between the composition of the player set and the equilibrium costs will be presented.

The second part of the talk concerns the behavior of delegation in integer splittable congestion games. A new class of games will be introduced: delegation games, where the players delegate their tasks to several independent players. Delegation equilibrium and consistent delegation equilibrium will be defined and their existence will be shown.

Onno Zoeter (Xerox Research Centre Europe)
Demand based pricing for parking. Theory and results from a first-of-its kind large scale experiment

The LA ExpressPark project is a large scale project in downtown LA that puts demand based pricing principles to the test.

In LA more than 6000 on-street parking spaces have been equipped with sensors. This data can be used to understand the underlying patterns in parking. This is a first for such an important part of daily life. In addition, the data can be used to guide the pricing of parking, to try to encourage parkers to avoid peak hours and peak locations.

In a sense such a system delivers upon the promise made by William Vickrey (Nobel laureate in 1996) in the 1950s. He argued eloquently that publically owned utilities, even though they might be paid for and owned by the general public, should not be put available to use for free to ensure most efficient use. For parking he proposed an ex-post parking meter.

In this talk I will present an ex-ante payment mechanism, a posted price mechanism, and a practical way to learn the optimal prices iteratively. The final method balances the need to stay close to the patterns in demand, and the need to be simple enough to be memorized by drivers. It also improves over the most basic versions of demand based pricing as used in similar projects.

Our methods have been in use in LA since June 2012. If time permits I will also share some of our initial results.

(Joint work with Eduardo Cardenas, Stephane Clinchant, Damien Cramet, Chris Dance, Honglu Du, James Glasnapp, Philippe Rerole, and Frank Torres.